Developments in the automation of construction processes, observable in recent years, is focused on speeding up the construction of buildings and structures. Additive manufacturing using concrete mixes are among the most promising technologies in this respect. 3D concrete printing allows the building up of structure by extruding a mix layer by layer. However, the mix initially has low capacity to transfer loads, which can be particularly troublesome in cases of external components that need to be placed on top such as precast lintels or floor beams. This article describes the application of additive manufacturing technology in the fabrication of a building wall model, in which the door opening was finished with automatic lintel installation. The research adjusts the wall design and printing process, accounting for the rheological and mechanical properties of the fresh concrete, as well as design requirements of Eurocode. The article demonstrates that the process can be planned precisely and how the growth of stress in fresh concrete can be simulated, against the strength level developed. The conclusions drawn from this research will be of use in designing larger civil structures. Furthermore, the adverse effects of concrete shrinkage on structures is also presented, together with appropriate methods of control.
Automation in the Construction of a 3D-Printed Concrete Wall with the Use of a Lintel Gripper
M Hoffmann, S Skibicki, P Pankratow, A Zielinski, M Pajor, M Techman
West Pomeranian University of Technology
Published in Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 8 2020
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